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医学有意思:亚博网页版生命科学的几个奥秘

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2019-06-05 17:22

xuduorendouduixiyoujilideerlangshenyinxiangshenke,yinweitadeetoushangzhangledisanzhiyanjing。renmenyizhiyiweizheizhishiyigeyaoyuandechuanshuo,qishiburan,zairennaodejiannaonaoqianqiuheqiunaozhijian,yourentidedisanzhiyanjing,zaiyixueshangchengzuosongguoti。songguotishiyouyuanshijizhuidongwudesongguoyanfazhanerlaideyizhongneifenmixianti,zaigaodengjizhuidongwuzhong,weiyiluanxingxiaoti,weiyujiannaobeimian。rendesongguotiweiyudisannaoshiding,guyouchengweifengminaoshangxian,qiyiduanjiexibingyudisannaoshidingxianglian,disannaoshituxiangbingneixingchengsongguotiyinwo。zhang5~8mm,kuan3~5mm,zhong120~200mg,shihuihongse、leisiyudouzhuangdetuoyuanxingxiaoti。

henduorenbuxiangxinsongguotishirenleidedisanzhiyanjing,juedehenbukesiyi,danyanjiuzhengmingzheishiyigewuyongzhiyideshishi,shengwuxuejiazaojiufaxian,zaoyijuemiedegudaidongwutougushangjiucunzaidisanzhiyanjingdeyankuang。houjingguoyifanyanjiubiaoming,bulunshiguiyuniaoshou,haishirenleidezuxian,doucengyouguodisanzhiyanjing。zhibuguosuizheshengwudejinhua,zheidisanzhiyanjingzhujiancongluguwaiyidaolenaoneibingyinzangqilai,chengweilewomensuoweidesongguoti。renderouyanyexiangzhaoxiangjidejingtouqiduijiao、caijiguangxiandezuoyong,ersongguotiqueshixiangzhaoxiangjideccdhuodipianqizhenzhengganguangchengxiangdezuoyong。rentidesongguotizaiertongshiqibijiaofada,dandao7suiyihoukaishituihua。xuduorenrenweizheishiwomendeshengwuxuedisanzhiyan、“linghundezuowei”、“qimengdezhongxin”。

zailishishang,songguoticengshiyigeshenjushenmigandexianti。zuizaoduisongguotijinxingmiaoshudeshiguluomayixuejiayujiepouxuejiagailun。tajieshilesongguotimingzidelaili(yushisongdeguoshidaxiaoyuxingzhuangxiangsi),bingcongyixuedejiaodumiaoshuletadegongneng。houlai,gudaiwanqideboxiduoni、meixiusidengrentichulexinlidenaoshidingweishuo,renweigezhongxinlijinengdingweiyubutongdenaoshi,toubuqianmiandenaoshifuzexiangxiang,zhongbudenaoshichanshenglixing,houbudenaoshifuzejiyi,juyujiannaodingbudesongguoticongciyuxinlingfashengleguanxi。jingyouzhongshijiaogusidingdengrendegaizao,shenglixuedesongguotiyoufushanglemouxieshenmidejineng,chengweileguifanrenleidexinlingdechangsuo。zaihoulai,yixierenliyongjiepouxuezhengju,renweisongguotishirenleituihuade“disanzhiyan”,shenzhibeirenweidifushanglezongjiaodeyiyi。

dikaerxuanzesongguotizuoweishenxinjiaohudechangsuo,bingbuzhishikanzhonglezheigexiantideshenmixing。tazai《lunlinghunzhiqing》zhongjichuleyigezijirenweihehuluojide、youqudelunzhengguocheng。tarenweirendeqiguandadoushichengshuang、duichengde,naobudeqitaqiguanyedoushichengshuangde,birurendouzhangyouliangzhiyanjing、liangzhierduo。danweishenmezaitongyishunjian,renquezhiyouyizhongwendingde、jiandandexiangfani?shishenmeshiwomenyanjingsuokandaodeliangfutuhua、erduosuotingdaodeliangzhongshengyin,hechengleyiti?dikaerrenweizheizhiyouyizhongkeneng,neijiushidanaozhongweiyibuchengshuangchengduidesongguoti,zhengshitajiangzheixieganjuehexiedihuijuzaiyiqi。congqizhongwomenkeyijianyaodikanchudikaerdeshenxinjiaogansixiang,yigengshenyibulejietadui“xinlingruhebeiganzhi”dehuida。

songguotijidaojiasuoweidetianyan,fojiayanshihai,yichengtianyanzhengzhitong。ruoliangongyoucheng,biannengguanrenqise,toushirenti,yuzhihuofu,yuceweilai,zhaofojiasuoshuo,jisejietiandeyangenchaoyueledadideyuanjin,shijiandeguoquheweilai,yiqiexianxiangdounengmingjian。zaihenduofojiaohuaxiangjidiaokezhong,keyikandaolianbuyouchuxiansanzhiyandeqingkuang。gujinzhongwaidewenmingyujiaopaidourezhongyuyanjiusongguotiyudisanzhiyan、tianmu。zaixuduogulaowenmingdeshenxiang、jisidemianjushang,huoyindudefoxiang,daojiadeshenxiangshangzaietoudebuweidoubuyueertongdikehuazhezheiyizhiyanjing。gezhongxinyangyuzongjiaoyedouyouxiangsidebiaozhilaibiaoxianshendequanshizhiyan。

shijiegedazongjiao、wenhuayuchuantongxinyang,douyouwenxiantantaosongguoti。zongguanrenleilishijilu,songguoticengjingbeizuoweirenleijingshenqimengdexiangzhengdaibiao,ziguyilaitayouchengshenmidediliumailunhuodisanyan,shizhishiyudazhihuizhiyan,tashizhenggelishideshenshengxiangzheng。yourenshuo,songguotijuyouyujianweilaidezuoyong,muqianshangweibeidinglun。dantaquehushiyizhonggulaozhihuidejidachengzhe。

womenzhidao,renleishijingguomanzhangdelichengjinhuaerlaide;yuleishanglujinhuaweiliangqilei,ranhouwanquantuolishuiyujinhuaweiludidepaxingleiheburulei,zuihoucaijinhuaweirenlei。jutidishuo,zongqiyuleifenweiliangzhi,qizhongyizhi(gulinyulei)tuolileshuiyu。zhubujinhuaweiren;lingyizhibijiaobaoshou(kongjiyulei),shizhongmeiyoulikaishui。xianzaidemaoweiyuleijiushihouzhedehoudai。

moxigelizhili(astyanaxmexicanus)yejiaomoxigemangyuhuowuyanyu。zheizhongyushenghuozaimoxigeyixiedixiashandongzhong。yutichengzhangxing,cebian,weiqichengchaxing,toujiaoduan,tizhangkeda8limi。youyuzheixiemangyumeiyouwanzhengdeyanjingjiegou,kexuejiayizhiyilaidouyiweitamenbunengshiwu。danshizaiyigeourandeqingkuangxia,laizimeiguomalilandaxuedeyanjiuyuanmasatoyoshizawaquefaxianshishibingbushizheiyang。youyitian,zaiqinglishiyanshilidemoxigemangyuyugangshi,yoshizawafaxiandangtayidongxiguanshi,mangyudeyouerjiuhuichaoxiguandeyingziyouqu。zheizhongxunzhaoanchuduozangdefanyingtongchangshineixiejuzhuzaiguangyuanchongzudifangdeyuyongyoudeziwobaohujizhi。erlingrenyixiangbudaodeshi,moxigemangyuyeyouzheizhongfanying。

neimewuyanyuyoushizenmeshiwudeni?moxigemangyudeyouersuiranyongyoufeichangjiandanqiesuizhenianlingtuihuadeyanbuzuzhi,danshizheixiezuzhijibenshangmeiyourenheganguangsesu。erqiedangkexuejiabazheixiezuzhiqiechuhou,moxigemangyudeyouerrengranduiguangyoufanying。zuihouyanjiuyuancaifaxian,yuanlaimangyuliyongdeshitamendesongguoti。chongmanshiwangmosesudesongguotichangbeirenchengwei“disanzhiyan”。dangyoshizawabataqiechuhou,tafaxianmangyubuzaiduiguangyoufanying。yoshizawadeyanjiuhuobanwilliamjefferyshuo:“yexumoxigemangyujuzhudedixiashandonglibingbushijueduiqiheide,ouerhuiyoucongwaimiantoujinlaideyisiguangxian。neime,duokaizheixieguangxianjianghuibangzhumangyubikaibushizhe。”laiziyingguodeshijuesesuzhuanjiajimbowmakerbiaoshi:“xianzaiyouyuelaiyueduodezhengjuxianshi,yixiedongwudesongguotikenengnenggouqidaoleisiyanjingdezuoyong,zheixiangyanjiuzhijiedezhengshilezheiyidian。”

zheijiunengjieshiweishenmeyouderenshuijuedeshihoujishizheguangshenzhidaileyanzhao,yeyirannenggouganshoudaoguangyuan。jinguansongguotiyirulerouyankanbudaodeluqiangnei,bunengzhijiekandaowaimiandeshijie,dantaqianzaidegongnengquemeiyouxiaoshi,rengrannengganshoudaoguangdecijibingzuochufanying。

songguotideganguangxingyenengweishuomingwomendexinqinghaohuaiyutianqiqingkuangyouhendaguanxi。yangguangmingmei、tianqiqinglang,womenganjuedaoxinqingshuchang,erwuyunmibu、yanyumianmian,womenganjueyuyuguahuan。zheishiyinweisongguotifenmichudetunheijisu,nengkongzhitineigezhongfenmixiandehuodong,bingqiehuishoudaoguangzhaodeyingxiang,suoyidangqiangguangzhaosheshi,tunheijisudefenmijiuhuijianshao,rendexinqingzehuibianhao;erzaianguangxia,tunheijisufenmijiuhuizengjia,xinqingzehuibiandeyayi。

tongyang,youyusongguotifenmidetunheijisushoudaodeguangminganxing,songguotifahuizherenti“shengwuzhong”dediaokongzuoyong。shoutunheijisudefenmishouguangzhaoheheiandeyingxiang,yinci,zhouyezhouqizhongguangzhaoyuheiandezhouqixingjiaoti,jiuhuiyinqitunheijisudefenmiliangxiangyingdichuxianzhouyezhouqixingbianhua。meidangbaizhoushi,tunheijisuzaixuejiangzhongdenongdujiuhuijiangdi,fanzhi,yewanjiuhuishenggao。songguotitongguotunheijisudezheizhongzhouyefenmizhouqi,xiangzhongshushenjingxitongfafangshijianxinhao,zhuaneryinfaruoganyushijianhuonianlingyouguande“shengwuzhong”xianxiang。rurenleideshuimianyujuexing、yuejingzhouqizhongdepailuanyijiqingchunqidedaolai。xinjinfaxian,rentidezhili“shengwuzhong”yi33weizhouqijinxingyunzhuan,qingxu“shengwuzhong”wei28tian,tili“shengwuzhong”wei23tian。zheisandashengwuzhongdediaoboyeshiyousongguotilaizhixingde。

bingqie,songguotizairentineizhixingzheyigeshenjing——jisuzhuanhuanqidegongneng。songguotifenmidetunheijisunenggouyingxiangheganyurenleidexuduoshenjinghuodong。songguotidezhuyaojisuweitunheisu,shuyuyinduoleihuahewu,qifenmichengxianmingxianderizhouqibianhua。liangqileidongwutunheisuduiqiyoucushipifutunsedezuoyong。duiburuleiyijingshiquzheizhongzuoyong,tunheisudeshenglizuoyongkenengtongguoxiaqiunao、huozhijieyizhichuiticuxingxianjisudefenmi,yizhixingxianhuodong,yizhixingchengshu,fangzhiertongzaoshu。zai1909nianyiweideguodeyishifaxianyiwei4suidenanhaitizaojinglilebuchengshudeqingchunqi,ranhousiwang。yanshijieguofaxianzheigenanhaisiyusongguotideexingzhongliu。yincizheiweiyishibianjiashezhengchangdesongguotinengzaihaitongshiqichanshengyizhixingfayudeheermeng,jiashixiantibeizhongliusuopohuai,yizhidezuoyongbianhuitingzhi,shidexingfayutizaofasheng。

neimezhaichusongguotiduiburudongwuhuiyoushenmeyingxiangni?youkexueshiyanjieguoxianshi,zhaichudashusongguoti,keyiyinqidashuxuexijiyinenglijiantui,yundongpizhi、tiganpizhijihaimaachexianweimidujiandi,yuanyinshangbuqingchu,kenengyuyixiayinsuyouguan:zhengchangdashutunheijisufenmichengzhouqixing,zaoshang4shikaishifenmi,zhongwu12shidazuigaofeng,ranhouzhujianjiangdi,zhiwan7~8shijiangweiling,tayudashuzhoufuyedongshixingxiangyizhi。zhaichudashusongguoti,daozhidashuxuezhongtunheijisunongdudafudujiangdi,zhouyefenmijielvxiaoshi,huanjingguangzhaozhouqixinhaobunengzhuanbianweidashujitineiyuanxingzhouyejielvxinhao,shijitiguyouneiyuanxingjielvwenluan,congeryingxiangshuimian-juexingzhouqi。yanjiufaxian,,zhaichudashusongguotihou,dashushuimianshijianwenluan、shuimianzhangai、yijuexing、jingshendaizhi。zheixiekenengshizaochengdashuxuexijiyizhangaideyuanyinzhiyi,zhiyushuimianzhangaishifoukeyizaochengdanjiannengshenjingsunhaihaishangweibaodao。eryidalideyixiangzuixinyanjiubiaoming,zhengchangdesongguotikenenghaiyoufangaizuoyong。yinweifaxianqiechusongguotihounengcujinmouxiezhongliudeshengzhang。

songguotiquzhongliuyibanjiaoweishaojian,songguotizhongliuchengrenjiertongjunkehuanbing,duojianyu10~25suideqingshaonian,ertonghuanzheduoweinanhai。songguotinangzhongdeqiyuanhaiweidinglun,yourenrenweiqilaiyuanyusongguotidetuibian。qibinglihezuzhixuetedianwei:songguotinangzhongkechengdanfanghuoduofang,nangbiweisanceng。neicengyoujiaoyangzuzhizucheng,zhongjiancengyousongguotishizhizuzhizucheng,waicengyoujiedizuzhizucheng。nangneiyetiweidanbaizhichengfen,yekeyouxuexingchengfen。danzaiquezhendesongguotibingbianlinchuanganlizhong,womenfaxian,zhongliujiaoxiaoshiyibanwulinchuangzhengzhuang。zhongliujiaodahou,keyapozhongnaodaoshuiguanjisannaoshiyinqinaojishui,luneiyazenggao,chuxiantouteng、outuzhengzhuang。qinfanzhongnaobeigaihaikechuxianyishangkunnan。

songguotixiangguanjibingshiyileishaojiandeneifenmixianjibing。qizhongsongguotizhongliuzhanluneizhongliude1%yixia,songguotigaihuabushaojian,songguotifayubuquanjinangzhongouerhuiyou。songguotizhongliuchengrenjiertongjunkehuanbing,duojianyu10~25suideqingshaonian,ertonghuanzheduoweinanhai。

zailinchuangzhiliaozhong,xuyaozhuyideshi,youyusongguotizhongliujuyushangqiunaodeyaohaibuwei,shoushuzhaichunandujiaoda。danglinchuangzhizhengmingxianshisongguotiliuyibunengzhaichu,shoushusiwanglvgao,shoushudeweixianxingqiang。shengzhixibaoliu、rongmaomoaidengduixibaoduhualiaomingan,suoyiyinggaizhengquzuozhenduanxingkailutancha,zuohuojiandedaoqueqiebinglizhenduan。duifangliaobumingandezhongliujinliangshoushuqiechu。duiluneishengzhixibaoliuyingzuoquanlujijizhuyufangxingxshexianfangshezhiliao,yifangzhiqiyanshenjingzhouzhongzhi。muqianduihuaxuezhiliaodejingyanshenshao。songguotigaihuabinglizhong,zaisongguotijiedizuzhizhongyounaosha,shisongguotixibaofenmidejizhigaihuaercheng,daxiaoyuewei1mm,biaoxianweigaihuadelizhuanghuotongxinyuanjiegou,songguotigaihuayouyouerqikaishi,qidaxiao、shuliangsuinianlingzengjia,zhiqingchunqikezailuguxshexianpianshangbiaoxianweigaiban,chengnianhousongguotigaidezonghanlianghengding,buzaisuinianlingerzengjia。songguotigaihuashiqifenmihuodongdejieguo,bingbuyingxiangqigongneng,bushiweisuotuihuadexiangzheng。songguotifayubuquanjiaoweishaojian,duobanyouxingzaoshujichuitigongnengsunhai。songguotinangzhong,shiyousongguotiyinwoyanbianerlai,bingbuxushoushuqiechu。

songguotiquzhongliubingrenshuhoudehulifeichangzhongyao,yingzuohaohaoshuhoushengmingtizhengjiyinliuguandeguanchajihuli,jishifaxianbingchulibingfazheng,shishoushuqudechenggongdeguanjian。yingdangchixushiyongzhenjingjihemazuiyaodeguanchahehuli,duishengmingtizhengheyinliuguanjinxingguanchajihuli,baqiguanchaguanshizuohaochongfenzhunbeiyupeihegongzuo。

rujinwangluozhongchuandefeifeiyangyangdeneishishijian,zongyouqirenyouzhemengyankandaoshiwude“shengong”,shenzhiyouchuanyanlianqigongtongguonaobokandaoshijie,shenzhiyoujiazhangbuxihuafeizhongjindaihaiziquzuojihuosongguotideyounaopeixun。dankexuejiayijingjieshi,suoyouderenzhigongnengdouyouwuzhichengzaitijidanao,youderendedanaogouzaodequeyiyuchangren,suoyinengshixianmouxietedingdegongneng。rugaogongnengzibizhenggeti,tamendequejuyouchangrenbujubeidemouxietedinggongneng,runenggouzaihenduandeshijianneishuchusanluoyidideyaqiandeshuliang,nenggoujixiayizhangdituzhongdesuoyoudimingdeng,zheixiedougentamentedingnaoquyiyuchangrenyouguan。naodianboshidanaozhongshenjingyuandedianhuodong,shiyizhonghunzadexinhao,suizaiyixueshanghuitongguonaobotulaifuzhujinxinglinchuangzhenduan,danrenleihaiwufatongguorenhexingshidenaoboqudaiyanjing“kan”dongxidegongneng,“yongnaodianbokanwushiyizhong‘hushuobadao’dewaili。

jiechuanneixiexingxingsesede“jihuosongguoti”demeilideweikexuehuangyan,womengengyinggaiyongyizhongkexuede、zhangyuande、lizhide、huaiyideyanguanglaikandaishiwu,peiyangkexuedejibensuyang。zhuiqiukexuehezhenli,daozuqiezhang,erwomen,renzhongdaoyuan。

eluosibanbende《zhishijiushililiang》zhongshuo:danaojiangyuzhouzhongdenenglianghuijiqilai,ershentiyudimianzhendangbaochiyizhi。suoyi,songguotinenggoucongyuzhouhuodechaofandexiangxiangli,jiangqihuazuoshenjingchongdong,daodaqiunaoxiabu。ranhou,zheixiexinhaosuizheshenjingjinrushiwangmo,shiwangmoshangbianchuxianxunidetuxiang,tongshi,tuxiangyishenjingchongdongdexingshijixuchuanrudanaodeshijuepiceng,chanshengyishi。”womensuolejiedesongguotizhishibingshanyijiao,zaiweilai,tahaiyougengduodeaomidengdaiwomenqufaxianhetansuo。

xinxilaiyuan:kepuzhongguo

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