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孟德尔定律被重新发现

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2016-07-15 16:55

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         19shiji60niandai,aodilidetianzhujiaoshenfumengdeer(g.mendel,1822~1884)tongguozhuoyouchengxiaodewandouzajiaoshiyan,tichulejuyoushenyuanlishiyiyidedutejianjiehou,shengwuyichuanyanjiucaijinrudaoyigezhanxindejiyuan。

 G.孟德尔

 mengdeer,1822nianchushengyudangshiaodilihaisendaofudiqudeyigepinkunongminjiating。1843nian10yue,yinshenghuosuopo,taburuaodilibulongchengdeyisuoxiudaoyuandangxiudaoshi。cong1851niandao1853nian,mengdeerzaiweiyenadaxuexuexile4gexueqi,xitongxuexilezhiwuxue、dongwuxue、wulixuehehuaxuedengkecheng。yucitongshi,tahaishoudaolecongshikexueyanjiudelianghaoxunlian,zheixiedouweitahoulaicongshizhiwuzajiaodekexueyanjiudiandinglejianshidelilunjichu。1854nianmengdeerhuidaojiaxiang,jixuzaixiudaoyuanrenzhi。cijian,weiletanjiukongzhizazhongxingchenghefayudeguilv,mengdeerzaiaodilibulong(brunn)(xianshujieke)deaogusiding(augustin)xiudaoyuanzhong,kaishilezhangda8niandewandouzajiaoshiyan。

 高茎豌豆和矮茎豌豆杂交实验

mengdeergenjutongjidaodeshiyanshujujinxingleshenrudelilunlunzheng,yitiwei“zhiwuzajiaodeshiyan”zhilunwen,zongjiechulebeihourenchengwei“fenlilv”he“ziyouzuhelv”delianggeyichuandingguilv,kandengzaiaodilizirankexuexuehuiniankanshang。zheipianlunwensuiranfensongzhideguozhiwuxuehui、yingguohuangjiaxuehui、faguokexueyuan、aodiliweiyenadaxuehemeiguogelunbiyadaxuedengguoneiwai130duogekexueyanjiujigouhedaxuedetushuguan,danshigefangmiandoumeiyouzuochurenhedefanying,zhenggekexuejieduicibaochichenmo。sheiyemeiyourenshidao,zaimengdeerdelunwenzhong,yunzangzheyigehuashidaidefaxian。

1900nianhelandeh.de・fulisi、deguodec.e.kelunsiheaodilidee.vonqieermake,zheisanweibutongguodudezhiwuxuejiaxianhoujihutongshifaxianlemengdeerdeyichuanguilv,bingchayuedaolebeiyanmeizaitushuguanwenxianzhongda35nianzhijiude《zhiwuzajiaodeshiyan》yuanwen,batazhongxingongzhiyushi。congci,g.j.mengdeerdefaxiandedaolegaodupingjia,suofaxiandeyichuanguilvbeichengweimengdeerdinglv,tabenrenbeiyuweixiandaiyichuanxuededianjiren。mengdeerdinglvzaifaxiande1900nianzebiaozhizhexiandaiyichuanxuedekaishi。kexueshishangbazheiyizhongdashijianchengweimengdeerdinglvdezhongxinfaxian。

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